there's a passport office on Victoria street, I think. It's a side street between yonge and church, between queen and king. It's a mall, with immgration and citizenship offices on the third floor. can't remember the exact addy regrets.
you'll need to bring two pieces of photo ID--a citizenship card and a health card will do. Take along your sin card, just in case. It'll take a couple of weeks and $65, if I remember correctly, but please don't quote me on it. go early and you should zip through the line up (take a number as soon as you enter).
when i was travelling back from arizona on new year's eve,
the flight attendant said that starting this year, a passenger is requested to show a proof of id that proves a location of birth.
(so you can either carry a birth certificate and a driver's license or some sort of ID or simply get a freaking passport!)
do yourself a favour and if you can go in the morning do that. It gets insanely crowded in the afternoon and you will have to wait a lot longer.
Also you can no longer smile in Canadian passport pictures. weirdest. shit. ever.
Good luck the rest of any relevant information in my experience is much better explained by those webpages. I lost my passport a couple months ago and it took FOREVER to get a new one because of police reports etc.