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For the Math Geeks!!!

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Okay this one is kind of cool. See I have the freak first name Josephus so here is the wiki on the "Josephus Problem"


Josephus problem
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The Josephus problem is a theoretic problem occurring in computer science and mathematics.

There are n people standing in a circle waiting to be executed. After the first man is executed, k−1 people are skipped and the k-th man is executed. Then again, k−1 people are skipped and the k-th man is executed. The elimination proceeds around the circle (which is becoming smaller and smaller as the executed people are removed), until only the last man remains, who is given freedom.

The task is to choose the place in the initial circle so that you survive (remain the last one), given n and k.


The problem is named after Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian living in the 1st century. As the legend goes, he and his 40 comrade soldiers were trapped in a cave, surrounded by Romans. They chose suicide over capture and decided that they will form a circle and start killing themselves using a step of three. As Josephus did not want to die, he was able to find the safe place, and stayed alive, later joining the Romans who captured him.


A partial solution is as follows. For simplicity, we assume that every 2nd person will be killed, i.e, k=2. Now, we frame the solution in terms of recursive relations. If the number of people present were odd, then the person who would survive after killing has gone once around the circle. He would be present, but this time killing would start from the first person, so, effectively his index would be increased by 1. Therefore,

f(2n + 1) = 2 * f(n) + 1

But for even number of people it is the other way around. Therefore,

f(2n) = 2 * f(n) − 1

where f(n) is the solution to the problem with n number of people present, while k=2.

When we tabulate the values of n against f(n) we find a nice regularity:
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
f(n) 1 1 3 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1

This shows that f(n) represents an increasing odd sequence with f(n) = 1 appearing regularly whenever the index n is a power of 2.

Therefore, if we represent n as 2m + l, where 0 < = l < 2m, then f(n) = 2 * l + 1. It can be clearly seen that the equation satisfies the table. But mathematics demands exact proof, i.e., simple proof by induction (not included here).

If n can be represented as n = b0b1b2b3...bn, where b0b1b2b3 is its binary notation, then the solution is f(n) = b1b2b3...bnb0. The proof for this very simple regularity comes from the representation of n as 2m + l.