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Direct TV

green_souljah

TRIBE Member
OK so I picked up a Direct TV system on ebay.

It came with the new P4 card, which is yet to be "programmable"

Now apparently the current "programmable" cards (HU) are going to be shut down soon, and replaced with the P4 (which I have)

Has anybody heard when the HU's will be shut down?

Should I be shelling out $100 for an HU card?
 

Dr. Grinch

TRIBE Member
Originally posted by green_souljah
OK so I picked up a Direct TV system on ebay.

It came with the new P4 card, which is yet to be "programmable"

Now apparently the current "programmable" cards (HU) are going to be shut down soon, and replaced with the P4 (which I have)

Has anybody heard when the HU's will be shut down?

Should I be shelling out $100 for an HU card?
HU is up for now
P4 is cracked due to corporate sabotage and will be recalled soon
P5 is being mailed to customers soon

/me is about to program his HU with a fresh new 3M :)
 

green_souljah

TRIBE Member
Re: Re: Direct TV

Originally posted by Dr. Grinch
HU is up for now
P4 is cracked due to corporate sabotage and will be recalled soon
P5 is being mailed to customers soon

What do you mean about the P4's?

I have seen the P5's for sale on Ebay....

should I be getting rid of the P4 while I still can?
 

Dr. Grinch

TRIBE Member
P4 is being scrapped because it's already hacked.
There's no home programmers and there won't be because the P4 is not going to be wide spread. The P5 on the other hand will be.

Ditch the P4.
 

Gladiator

TRIBE Member
You are all Wrong

The p5 (D1) is the p4 - the p4 card was made by a company called NDS, Directv and NDS had a falling out and thus stopped doing business with NDS. The P5 (D1) is made in house by Directv. They are both exactly the same thing.

Here is some more info an the status of the P4/P5 hack:

*** Warning: This is long...grab a chair and sit down for this one ***

The P4/D1 Hack (Past, Present and Future)
-= PacketStorm =-
Version 1.0b - 12.23.03

I'm writing this document in order to clarify a few things that I keep seeing posted on the message boards regarding the P4/D1 card hack. First off, my obligatory semi-legal disclaimer:

I, in no way, endorse or condone the unauthorized reception/viewing of any encrypted satellite signal. I also do not personally partake in the "loading" or "glitching" of D*r*ct TV's satellite receiver cards. I'm only interested in this information because my job involves the usage of similar, so called "smart cards" and I'm obligated to study their security weaknesses as much as possible. The information contained here is freely and publicly available over the Internet. There are NO instructions contained within this document that detail in any way how to "hack" or otherwise receive satellite signals that you are not authorized to intercept. This information is provided in order to help explain how and when a hack for the P4/D1 card may come about. It is my hope that this document may one day become reference material for the n00b Free TV'ers who continuously post the same ridiculous questions that have been addressed millions of times before. ~PacketStorm

OK, with that out of the way lets look at why we even need to use the DTV issued card in the first place? Why can't we just hack the receiver to always give us the video signal? It's because of the ASIC that's on every one of DTV's access cards. An ASIC is an (A)pplication (S)pecific (I)ntegrated (C)ircuit. It does just what it's name implies: it's dedicated circuitry (supplemental to the main processor chip) that is designed to do one thing, and one thing only. In our case it's set up to generate the key values that are used by the receiver to decrypt the satellite signal. Without going into great boring detail, the satellite signal is extremely secure (using public key encryption) and is actually decrypted inside the receiver, not inside the access card. The access card only starts the decryption process by using certain specific, but sometimes randomly chosen, EEPROM values found on all valid subscriber cards to create a "seed" value to send to the card's ASIC. The ASIC mathematically crunches this seed value into another value, the key, which is transmitted back to the receiver and then sent to its decrypt circuitry, which obviously decodes the satellite signal for clear video. This happens roughly every 8 seconds while the satellite signal is encrypted using a different value for each 8-second period. Without going into any more detail, the ASIC is designed in such a way that it is EXTREMELY hard to duplicate and that is why it is not possible to do away with the access card. By the way, the ASIC is the reason why people running emulation must use a card to decrypt the signal when using a computer. The card is "auxed" which means it's EEPROM is loaded up to run code which simply acts as communication middleware that only sends the proper seed value to the ASIC from the computer, then retrieves the generated key value and transfers it back to the computer for further processing. The computer can only be set up to emulate the EEPROM code that handles the stream packets, tier wipes, cmd 82's and other basic card functions, but never the ASIC functions. The card is needed for it's ASIC circuitry.

Now that we understand why the card is required, let's go over a brief explanation of the HU card "hack." First, the HU (or P3, Period Three, football) card was NEVER hacked in the strictest sense of the term. The "glitching" process by which you are all now so familiar merely BYPASSES the security code that was placed on the card to keep intruders out and the secrets it contains, safe. This bypassing is done by *glitching* either the voltage or the clock signal going to the card when it's placed into one of the available loaders flashed with the proper atmel code. Without getting into great detail, these glitches drop the voltage to some unusually low level momentarily (1/2 a clock cycle) or send multiple clock cycles (up to 4X) during the time that ONE should have been sent. These glitches must be done at *exactly* the right time during the card boot process in order to create malfunctions in the security code execution. These "malfunctions" cause very specific errors, which alter the original program flow in a desirable way and eventually enable the atmel flash code to jam in some code that YOU want the card to execute. This code is called the "bootloader." At this point, the bootloader has hijacked the card and you can now do essentially anything that you want through the bootloader code that is executing on the card (read or write to the EEPROM addresses).

A smartcard is designed such that once it is reset, powered up and is getting a good clock signal, it begins executing code at a specific, hard coded, EEPROM memory address. This is very similar to the way your personal computer boots up: once the BIOS tests are complete, your computer is instructed by the motherboard BIOS ROM code to go to a specific permanent location and begin executing whatever it finds there (track 0, sector 0 of your hard drive). In most cases this would be initialization code belonging to Windows, Linux or whatever OS, and is responsible for getting the rest of the operating system up and running. However, it could also be nothing (new hard drive) or maybe even a boot sector virus. Anyway, on the HU card, the code located at the startup address is mostly security code designed to keep you out. So, by resetting the card and then counting how many clock signals have been sent to it after the reset (the HU uses an external clock), it is possible to determine exactly which instruction the card is performing and then send it a clock or voltage glitch at the perfect moment to alter the flow of the original code in a way that allows you to load your own code (bootloader from the atmel flash). A very important point to note is the fact that you *must* know EXACTLY what the card is doing BEFORE it's possible to glitch into it. It requires studying an EEPROM dump beforehand. THAT is the catch!

It's actually a little more complicated than that, but that's enough information for us to continue. Basically, glitching is only possible because of oversights that were made during the development of the HU card. Also, the HU card does not have provisions to monitor what you are doing to it from the outside. It can't detect your attempts at voltage or clock glitching. The new P4 card (period 4) can, however. I might also mention at this point that the P4 and D1 cards are essentially the same card. They both definitely use the same data packet format and while there are rumors that the D1 is a version of the P4 that has some "security holes" fixed, this has not been verified publicly. One thing is for sure though, the D1 (D*V's first in-house card) came about because of D*V's "divorce" with NDS who has up until this point been the manufacturer of all D*V's smart cards. Suffice it to say that the P4 is functionally equivalent to the D1 and from this point forward I will refer to both of them as the P4 card.

Something to keep remembering is the fact that the glitching process was developed AFTER analyzing the code the HU card was executing after a reset. The glitches must occur at specific known decision or branching points within the code. Without this prior knowledge, glitching is USELESS! I am unsure of the history of how the HU EEPROM was initially dumped in order to gain this EEPROM information. It could have been through an insider at NDS (the HU card manufacturer) leaking the code or by some other physical intrusion method (most likely). This is important to remember as we get further into what is required to hack the P4 card because getting the EEPROM dump is always step one.

So, what is required to break into the newer P4 card? First off, to all you people who say you are "experimenting" and "trying stuff" by placing their P4 cards into their HU loaders flashed with UL4S, some other HU compatible code or even some of the so called "P4 scripts"...FORGET IT! It is NOT going to happen, I promise you. The most likely result is that you will ruin your P4 card. I'm sure your efforts are much appreciated by those drooling for the P4 hack, but rest assured, an armchair “tester” WILL NOT break it by simply sticking their P4 into the same setup used for the HU and randomly glitching. I don't mean to sound nasty or negative, your intentions are to be applauded, but if you don't understand why it's not possible, then you won't understand what you are looking at even if you were to crack the card (which again, is not going to happen). Even if by some infinitesimally remote chance that you were to "break" in (and it would require a miracle of biblical proportions), there is nothing about the HU EEPROM that is compatible with the P4. OK, so you got in, *now* what do you load onto it? An HU bin file? Isn't going to work. Oh, so you dumped the P4 EEPROM code? You've still got to disassemble it to figure out how it works! Where and how do you 3M it? Once somebody finally sees the P4 EEPROM dump, it will take WEEKS to analyze it and even begin to understand how it functions (it's all in machine language mind you). Then, and only then, will it be possible to come up with ways to load activation or 3M code onto a P4.

Furthermore, the P4 incorporates glitch detection (it is a Siemens Infineon SLE66P based on the ECO2000 processor). That means if you try to use the same methods of getting into the P4 as were used with the HU, you run the risk of it shutting down completely (permanently?). Remember, glitching ONLY works when you know and understand the original code that is executing. You MUST have prior knowledge of at least a portion of what is on the card before you can even begin. Also, smartcards can be designed in such a way that if they detect ANY form of tampering, they completely self-destruct (erase the contents of EEPROM). That way even if you do get in, there is little, if any, information to be gained. Without the original, unaltered, DTV specific EEPROM of a P4, just getting into a blank card is next to useless. I do not know whether or not the P4 utilizes such powerful countermeasures, but future access cards most definitely will.

I see posts where somebody gets an ATR (answer to reset) from a P4 and they think they've done something miraculous. Sorry again, but getting an ATR doesn't mean sh*t other than the card is executing valid instructions internally (meaning it still works, not looped). The ATR is a requirement of the smart card specification and all smart cards are designed to give an ATR. The ATR is simply a string of characters returned from the smart card in response to a reset signal sent by the reader. Its primary purpose is to indicate the status of the smart card power-up sequence and also convey information which the reader requires in order to optimise the speed of communication between the reader and the card. Simple as that. Now, the ATR is useful during unlooping because of the way the ATR string is "built up" by the program code on the card. Unlooping scripts can look at the ATR (or a partial ATR) and get a rough idea of what is happening with the card. That's how you know if you are using good DAC values with your loader during unlooping - by watching the ATR. This is getting into advanced territory so suffice it to say that ANY properly operating smart card is going to give you an ATR. Seeing one or analyzing one doesn't mean a thing other than what was just mentioned. The reason a lot of people get excited when they see one is because HU related scripts and programs are programmed to look for the HU specific ATR string (ATR's are different for each type of card). HU programs will always say that the P4 ATR is invalid. However, some of the so called "P4 scripts" floating around will recognize the P4 ATR and when someone doesn't understand what the ATR is, they get excited and think they have accomplished something. I REPEAT, GETTING AN ATR FROM A P4 CARD DOESN'T MEAN SH*T!

This seems to get posted a lot: "anything that one man can create, another man can hack" implying that the P4 card has been or will be hacked eventually. And yes, this is very true. However, what is not considered, is *HOW* the P4 is compromised. Just because someone spent 9 months and 3 million dollars at a microprocessor lab at Intel and dumped the EEPROM of a P4 card does not automatically make it possible to create a Mikobu P4 loader with an accompanying atmel flash that will allow you to program it in your living room with a notebook computer. I don't intend to sound like a naysayer, and there probably will be a compact software hack for these new cards someday, I just don't think most people can even begin to understand the massive undertaking that is involved with defeating modern smartcard security! And just because it is compromised once does not mean it's possible for the masses to do it with plain software and a serial port loader. There are only a HANDFUL of people on this planet with the desire, will, time, financial backing and equipment required to break into the P4 cards. Tom Friendly next door is NOT going to do it with his HU loader in one hand and a beer in the other... Yes, all the cards leading up to the P4 card have been compromised extensively and they were all done with a portable hack. However, just because it's been that way in the past, does not automatically make that true for the future. D*r*ct TV is losing money because of piracy. They will curb this current trend. Make no mistake, given enough time they will come up with a tamper proof card. No, it won't be so secure that it's unhackable, it will just require so much effort and so much money that nobody will want to touch it. Game over...

So how does one begin hacking a modern smart card? All attacks on smartcards can be classified as social, logical or invasive (or even combinations of each):
1.) Social attacks involve getting information from an insider at D*V or NDS. These are not exactly hacks since the only thing gained is information about what is on the card. Now it is most definitely useful info to have, but it is only the beginning of the battle. You still must develop a way to defeat the hardware security features of the card and be able to read and write to the EEPROM. Furthermore, no insider in his right mind would leak information about the P4 cards! Considering what happened to that retard Igor Serebryany in March 2003. He leaked some documents about the P4 that were at his uncle's law firm that was handling the litigation between D*V and NDS. He got busted and they FRIED his ass and charged him with violating the 1996 Economic Espionage Act which, not surprisingly, is a felony. By the way, there are very few people that have ever been charged with this violation. It's considered one of the "big guns" and they only break it out for very special people and circumstances. We won't be hearing from Igor for quite some time...
2.) Logical attacks involve analysis of signals emitted from the card while it is in operation or measuring the micro current it draws from a power supply while it is operating, or a multitude of other parameters. How this information is analyzed to gain useful information is FAR beyond what I wish to get into here. Suffice it to say that it requires very sensitive, expensive lab equipment, and an incredible amount of detailed knowledge about integrated circuits and cryptography to pull off. And again, it only yields information about the code that is executing, it still doesn't put into your hands the ability to arbitrarily read and write to the EEPROM.

3.) Invasive or physical attacks involve destructive analysis of the actual microprocessor chip that is embedded into the plastic card. The chip is extracted and examined under very powerful microscopes (scanning electron) and to the trained eye, can reveal how the chip works and make it possible to reverse engineer it. It also can provide the ability to probe different sections of the chip while it is operating to gain knowledge of how it functions and possibly even dump the contents of the EEPROM. Of course, there are plenty of countermeasures that smartcard manufacturers take to shield the chip from these techniques, such as light sensors or wire mesh shields, but given enough time even those protection methods can usually be defeated. This type of attack tends to be the most successful. However it is extremely difficult to get access to the required equipment that is typically only found at chip manufacturers (Intel, AMD, etc.) or maybe at a university. Not too many people are going to have one in their garage as the cost for such equipment easily runs into the millions. You would also have to have a hefty set of balls to stroll into your local microprocessor company's laboratory with a P4 card to "do some work."

Even if one of the methods above yields valuable information about the card, a huge task still remains. How do you make it possible to arbitrarily read and write to it on a regular basis? Now, if the card only contained the access codes for a bank vault that had millions of dollars within it, there is no longer a problem. The chip is probed to the point where it pukes out the desired access codes, the money is stolen and the hack is done. The problem with the D*V cards is that whoever hacks it, wants to be able to easily REPRODUCE the hack, preferably with software so that it can be distributed and others can do the same thing whenever and wherever they want, for a fee of course! THAT IS THE PART THAT WILL NEVER BE GUARANTEED FOR FUTURE CARDS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED HACKS. "One man can make it, another man can break it" says nothing about being able to "break it" using a personal computer and a loader the size of a deck of cards! Remember this as we move towards the future...

OK, now let's assume that the P4 has been compromised and it's possible to repeatedly read and write to it using a loader and an atmel flash. "Will my current loader work with the P4?" The P4 is not glitchable by the current loaders (and most likely not any glitching type loader) due to all the anti-glitching security it contains. Even if it were glitchable, the standard clock crystal in an HU loader is not even close to being able to deliver the required number of clock glitches to a P4 chip (not enough resolution). Remember when we discussed glitching into the HU at the beginning? Well, the speed of the crystal in your loader MUST be able to deliver up to 4 times the clock pulses as what the card's processor chip is normally running at in order to clock glitch or even voltage glitch because both are time dependent. The Infineon spec sheet indicates that the P4 is running at 12 Mhz which is about three times as fast as the HU. If the P4 hack requires *glitching* of any kind then the currently available loaders will not work...period, their clocks are too slow to glitch.

Now that's not to say that the hack won't involve some other means of gaining access. If the entry method involves some other design flaw besides glitching then yes, I'm almost certain that current loaders or any ISO-7816 card reader for that matter will work. The P4 atmel flash will just basically turn your loader back into a semi-standard ISO-7816 reader.

Now, I know I've seen posts where people say "well, if my receiver can read both an HU card and a P4 card it stands to reason that my HU loader will work with the P4." That is FALSE. It must be remembered that the way the pirate loaders and a legitimate card slot in a receiver access a card ARE ENTIRELY DIFFERENT. The HU loaders GLITCH into the card by sending erroneous signals to it, but the receiver passes legitimate signed data packets from D*V to the card using a standard ISO compliant reader (inside your receiver). At this point, we cannot send signed packets to the card. In order to understand why, you need to read up on how public key encryption works. Breaking public key encryption involves math algorithms well beyond what the average person can understand and more processing power to break than is available in a supercomputer or even distributed computing using the Internet.

Some people have suggested that the communication between the receiver and card be "recorded" and played back later to reprogram the card. This is not possible because part of the digital signature that's used on the data packets involves a timestamp and is only valid for a very short period of time. Good idea, but that won't work either.

I personally don't know if the P4 has been compromised yet or not. It's really anyone's guess. I know that reliable sources say that it has been hacked, but I'll have to witness it myself to believe it. One thing is for sure, the public will not know about it until after the HU stream is completely turned off. That's when we'll see some action if it exists!

If you're still reading, thanks for bearing with me this long. Hopefully this information is enough to answer some of your questions and eliminate some of the speculation that's going on. If anybody has any information to add, please PM me and I'll make this document a work in progress. Also, if you find this information to be useful, please point people asking stupid questions to it so they can read it and maybe start to understand what is going on.

Peace.

PacketStorm
 
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xtcfreak

TRIBE Member
the HU cardswap with the p4 was supposed to happen LONG ago.. i wouldn't worry about it anytime soon.. the HU cards will work for a long while still..

Jay
 
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